Fluidized bed boilers

Fluidized bed boilers use the principle of burning fuels in a fluidized bed. A fluidized bed creates conditions suitable for the uniform combustion of fuel throughout its volume, which means, as a final result, more perfect fuel burn-up (high efficiency of a fluidized bed boiler) at lower combustion temperatures and whilst reducing the production of harmful waste gases at the same time.

Waste gases produced during fluidized bed combustion contain a significantly smaller percent of sulphur and nitrogen oxide contents compared to conventional combustion.

The principles of fuel burning in a fluidized bed also provide suitable conditions for burning a wide range of fuels such as coal, biomass, sewage treatment plant sludge, separated municipal waste, and others. The fluidized bed boiler technology is thus the most perfect method of burning fuels both from an ecological point of view and an economical point of view, i.e. with the highest efficiency and the lowest emissions.

Fluidized bed boiler combustion chamber

View of the burning fluidized bed in the combustion chamber of our fluidized bed boiler

Fuel combustion takes place in the fluidized bed. At temperatures of about 825˚C, the fluidized bed behaves as a boiling fluid. In the case of the fluidized bed, the fuel burns throughout its volume with no flame which is typical of fuel combustion in a grate boiler furnace.The fuel being burnt floats in the fluidized bed, with the burnt fuel being emitted from the surface and leaving the fluidized bed as light ash particles together with waste gases. The fluidized bed creates conditions for the perfect contact between the fuel and oxygen.

Employment of fluidized bed boilers

By reason of the complexity of the solution and the related high investment price, boilers with a fluidized bed were previously only used as power plant boilers .

On the basis of our own long-time research and development results (many of the solutions used in designing fluidized bed boilers and the methods of combustions are protected by patents) our company has however designed an affordable fluidized bed boiler solution for the area of small and mean outputs (up to 100 MWt) by which the employment of this advanced combustion technology opens to a wide range of customers.

Independence of the fuel to be burnt, the simultaneous burning of more fuel types and high efficiency and availability predetermine our fluidized bed boiler design solution for a wide range of applications.

  • Steam fluidized bed boilers for steam production with turbine parameters to drive condensing or back-pressure steam turbines
  • Steam fluidized bed boilers for steam production for technological purposes or heating
  • Hot-water fluidized bed boilers
  • Warm-water fluidized bed boilers
  • Coal-burning power plants and heating plants
  • Biomass power plants and heating plants
  • Power plants and heating plants using combined combustion of more fuel types
  • Industrial waste incinerating plants (plastics, rubber, and the like)
  • Separated municipal waste incinerating plants


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Kovosta-fluid, a.s.
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